These two freedoms are also known as transit rights. States normally permit foreign private i.
The first is the privilege of flying across a country nonstop; the second, of flying across with a stop for technical purposes only. In common-law countries the courts have arrived at a broadly similar position.
Attempts have been made since to create other freedoms, but each new freedom usually represents in practice a new restriction.
At the turn of the 20th century the view that airspace, like the high seasshould be free was sometimes advanced. See Article History Air law, the body of law directly or indirectly concerned with civil aviation. Air law.
Charter flights fall mostly, but not invariably, into the latter category.